This page lists the most applicable state crimes
addressing stalking. However, depending on the facts of the case, a stalker
might also be charged with other crimes, such as trespassing, intimidation of
a witness, breaking and entering, etc. Check your state code or consult with
your local prosecutor about other charges that might apply in a particular
Analyzing Stalking Laws
N.D. Cent. Code, §
12.1-17-07.1. Stalking. (2011)
1. As used in this section:
a. “Course of conduct” means a pattern of conduct consisting of two or more acts evidencing a continuity of purpose. The term does not include constitutionally protected activity.
b. “Immediate family” means a spouse, parent, child, or sibling. The term also includes any other individual who regularly resides in the household or who within the prior six months regularly resided in the household.
c. “Stalk” means :
(1) To engage in an intentional course of conduct directed at a specific person which frightens, intimidates, or harasses that person and which serves no legitimate purpose. The course of conduct may be directed toward that person or a member of that person's immediate family and must cause a reasonable person to experience fear, intimidation, or harassment; or
(2) The unauthorized tracking of the person's movements or location through the use of a global positioning system or other electronic means that would cause a reasonable person to be frightened, intimidated, or harassed and which serves no legitimate purpose.
2. A person may not intentionally stalk another person.
3. In any prosecution under this section, it is not a defense that the actor was not given actual notice that the person did not want the actor to contact or follow the person; nor is it a defense that the actor did not intend to frighten, intimidate, or harass the person. An attempt to contact or follow a person after being given actual notice that the person does not want to be contacted or followed is prima facie evidence that the actor intends to stalk that person.
4. In any prosecution under this section, it is a defense that a private investigator licensed under chapter 43–30 or a peace officer licensed under chapter 12–63 was acting within the scope of employment.
5. If a person claims to have been engaged in a constitutionally protected activity, the court shall determine the validity of the claim as a matter of law and, if found valid, shall exclude evidence of the activity.
6. a. A person who violates this section is guilty of a class C felony if:
(1) The person previously has been convicted of violating section 12.1–17–01, 12.1–17–01.1, 12.1–17–02, 12.1–17–04, 12.1–17–05, or 12.1–17–07, or a similar offense from another court in North Dakota, a court of record in the United States, or a tribal court, involving the victim of the stalking;
(2) The stalking violates a court order issued under chapter 14–07.1 protecting the victim of the stalking, if the person had notice of the court order; or
(3) The person previously has been convicted of violating this section.
b. If subdivision a does not apply, a person who violates this section is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.
Approved April 23, 2015. Filed April 23, 2015.
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